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On June 28, 2007 the Supreme Court struck down two voluntary desegregation plans in Seattle and Louisville with a majority of the justices holding that, although diversity and avoiding racial isolation in schools is important, individual students may not be assigned or denied a school assignment on the basis of race even if the intent is to achieve integrated schools. Following upon this ruling and the earlier Grutter v. Bolinger case at the University of Michigan, race may be considered as a plus factor along with other individualized factors in the pursuit of diversity in the student body. Nonetheless, U.S. public schools today have re-segregated to greater extents than in the years before Brown (Orfield, 2007).